An acclaimed reference that fills a significant gap in the literature, this volume examines the linkages between spoken and written language development, both typical and atypical. Leading authorities address the impact of specific language-related processes on K-12 literacy learning, with attention to cognitive, neurobiological, sociocultural, and instructional issues. Approaches to achieving optimal learning outcomes with diverse students are reviewed. The volume presents research-based practices for assessing student needs and providing effective instruction in all aspects of literacy: word recognition, reading comprehension, writing, and spelling. New to This Edition *Chapters on digital literacy, disciplinary literacy, and integrative research designs. *Chapters on bilingualism, response to intervention, and English language learners. *Incorporates nearly a decade's worth of empirical and theoretical advances. *Numerous prior edition chapters have been completely rewritten.