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Fact over Fake
A Critical Thinker's Guide to Media Bias and Political Propaganda
- Today's instantaneous and ever-present news stream frequently presents a sensationalized or otherwise distorted view of the world, demanding constant critical engagement on the part of everyday citizens. The Critical Thinker's Guide to Bias, Lies, and Politics in the News reveals the power of critical thinking to make sense of overwhelming and often subjective media by detecting ideology, slant, and spin at work. Building off the Richard Paul and Linda Elder framework for critical thinking, Elder focuses on the internal logic of the news as well as societal influences on the media while illustrating essential elements of trustworthy journalism. With up-to-date discussions of social media, digital journalism, and political maneuvering inside and outside the fourth estate, Fact or Fake is an essential handbook for those who want to stay informed but not influenced by our modern news reporting systems.
- Introduction: Why Critical Thinking is Essential to Making Sense of the News The Logic of the News Media What is News? Political Views in the News - Understanding the Liberal Mind Political Influences, Advertising, and Group Think Technological Noise in the News What We Need the News Media to Do for Us Chapter 1: Current Trends Affecting How We See the News Key Critical Thinking Questions to Ask When Seeking the News Realities That Impede Our Ability to Get Objective News The Problem of Fake News Social Media as an Unreliable News Source Chapter 2: Essential Critical Thinking Tools for Understanding Media Logic Defining Critical Thinking A Comprehensive Approach to Critical Thinking All Humans Use Their Thinking to Make Sense of the World All Thinking Is Defined by the Eight Elements That Make It Up Analyze Thinking Through its Elemental Structures Question the Reasoning Embedded in a News Article Question Your Own Reasoning While Reading the News Reason Through News Articles, Editorials, and Stories - a Checklist Evaluate Reasoning Through Critical Thinking Standards Critical Thinking Standards for Assessing News Articles, Editorials, and Stories Defining Characteristics of the Disciplined Mind - and How They Help Us See Through Bias and Propaganda Rational or Irrational Tendencies Can Control the Mind Humans Distort Reality Through Irrational Lenses The Problem of Egocentric Thinking The Problem of Sociocentric Thought Chapter 3: Objectivity, Bias, and Underlying Agendas Democracy and the News Media Myths That Obscure the Logic of the News Media Bias and Objectivity in the News Media How the News Media Views Objectivity Forms of Objectivity The Perception of Bias in the Mainstream Propaganda and News Story Writing Protecting the Home Audience from Feelings of Guilt How the News Media Fosters Sociocentric Thinking Chapter 4: Become an Astute Media Consumer How to Obtain Useful Information from Propaganda and Typical News Stories Steps in Becoming a Critical Consumer of the News Media Awareness of Media Bias Sensitivity to Advertisers Sensitivity to Politicians and the Government Sensitivity to Powerful Interests Sensitivity to Their Competitors The Bias Toward "Novelty" and "Sensationalism" Critical Consumers of the News Dominant and Dissenting Views: Finding Alternative Sources of Information Buried, Ignored, or Underreported Stories Readings that Help You Become a More Independent Thinker Chapter 5: The Future of the News Is It Possible for the News Media to Reform? Is the Emergence of a "Critical Society" Possible? Afterword: How the Internet and Other Technologies Pervade Our Lives How the Internet Works: The Big Picture Assess a Given Website Using Critical Thinking Standards Appendix: An Abbreviated Glossary of Critical Thinking Concepts and Terms
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