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Women and Politics: Paths to Power and Political Influence

Paths to Power and Political Influence
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Julie Dolan is Professor of Political Science at Macalester College in St. Paul, Minnesota. She earned her PhD from American University. Her scholarly interests include American government and politics, women and politics, and bureaucratic politics. She has received a number of prestigious awards for her scholarship and publishes in a variety of journals including Women & Politics, Public Administration Review, PS: Political Science and Politics, the Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory. Her most recent research focuses on issues of political representation in the bureaucracy. Melissa M. Deckman is the Louis L. Goldstein Professor of Public Affairs and Chair of the Political Science Department at Washington College. She earned her PhD from American University. Her areas of specialty include religion and politics, women and politics, and American political behavior, and she publishes in a variety of journals, including Journal of Women, Politics, and Public Policy, PS: Political Science and Politics, and American Politics Research, which most recently published her work (coauthored with John McTague) on the impact of the "War on Women" on the 2012 presidential election. Her forthcoming book, Mama Grizzlies and Politics, examines the role of women in the Tea Party in America. Michele L. Swers is Professor of American Government in the Department of Government at Georgetown University. She earned her PhD from Harvard University. Her research and teaching interests encompass Congress, congressional elections, and women and politics. She has written two books on women and representation in Congress: The Difference Women Make: The Policy Impact of Women in Congress and Women in the Club: Gender and Policy Making in the Senate.
List of Figures and Tables Preface Acknowledgements About the Authors 1 Introduction and Theoretical Framework History and Women's Political Interests Women's Representation Part I: Women's Paths to Power 2 Women's Paths to Power Women in Social Movements and Interest Groups Early Women Activists and the Fight for Suffrage Feminism, the Second Wave (1960s-Present) The Rebirth of the Feminist Movement The Emergence of the Older and Younger Branches of the Feminist Movements The Equal Rights Amendment Women and Interest Groups Conservative Women's Groups Fight Back Reinvigoration of the Feminist Movement and Conservative Women's Activism Conclusion 3 The Gender Gap in Elections and Public Opinion Courting the Women's Vote: The Early Years The Emergence of the Modern Gender Gap The Gender Gaps: Voting Trends Across Different Groups of Women Issues That Explain the Gender Gap Courting the Women's Vote in a Competitive Political Climate Does the Gender Gap Bring Women Political Power? Do Women Vote for Women? Hillary Clinton and the Women's Vote Conclusion 4 Gender and the Decision to Run for Office A Confidence Gap: Women Underestimate Their Political Abilities Political Parties' Efforts to Incorporate Women Family Constraints Symbolic Representation: Does It matter if Women Run for Office? Conclusion 5 Women on the Campaign Trail Challenges on the Campaign Trail Voter Stereotypes About Female Candidates Media Coverage of Female Candidates Female Presidential and Vice Presidential Candidates Navigating Gender on the Campaign Trail: The 2016 Elections Conclusion Part II: Women in Power 6 Women in Local Politics and Government Descriptive Representation: Women Serving in Local Government The Numbers: Women as Mayors and Local Executives The Numbers: Women on City and County Councils The Numbers: Women Serving as School Board Members, Clerks, Sheriffs, and Other Local Officers What Determines Women's Representation in Such Offices? Local Office as Stepping Stones: Filling the Pipeline? Substantive Representation: Does Having Women in Local Government Matter? Women as Political Actors Outside of Government Conclusion 7 Women in Congress and the State Legislatures Women and Representation Women's Representation in Legislative Bodies Around the World Women's Representation in Congress and the State Legislatures across Time The Advancement of Women in Congress Women in Congress and State Legislatures: A Distinctive Impact on Policy? Party, Ideology, and Constituent Interests Race, Ethnicity, and Social Class Institutional Position Gender, Race, and Institutional Norms Critical Mass and Policy Influence Women in Leadership Conclusion 8 Women in the Executive Branch Women's Access to the Executive Branch: Masculinity, Power, and the Executive Branch Descriptive Representation Presidential and Gubernatorial Cabinets Career Civil Service/State and Local Bureaucracies Linking Descriptive and Substantive Representation: Do Women Make a Difference? Challenges to Providing Substantive Representation Power and Leadership Style Conclusion 9 Women in the Judiciary Why the Courts are Important Women in the Judiciary Women on the Supreme Court O'Connor, Ginsburg, and Beyond: Gender and the Supreme CourtWomen in the State Judiciary The Difference Women Judges Make Do Women Judges Use A "Different Voice"? Empirical Studies: The Impact of Sex on JurisprudenceGender and the Supreme Court: Why Gender MattersBeyond the Essentialist Argument: Why Gender Still MattersConclusion Appendix A: "Declaration of Sentiments" and "Resolutions" Adopted by the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848 Appendix B: National Organization for Women's Bill of Rights and Redstockings Manifesto References Index
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