Integrating significant advances in motivation science that have occurred over the last two decades, this volume thoroughly examines the ways in which motivation interacts with social, developmental, and emotional processes, as well as personality more generally. The Handbook comprises 39 clearly written chapters from leaders in the field. Cutting-edge theory and research is presented on core psychological motives, such as the need for esteem, security, consistency, and achievement; motivational systems that arise to address these fundamental needs; the process and consequences of goal pursuit, including the role of individual differences and contextual moderators; and implications for personal well-being and interpersonal and intergroup relations.
I. A Historical Perspective 1. Core Social Motivations: Views from the Couch, Consciousness, Classroom, Computers, and Collectives, Susan T. Fiske II. Forms and Systems of Motivation Different Forms of Motivation 2. Belongingness Motivation: The Mainspring of Social Action, Mark R. Leary and Cody B. Cox 3. The Many Sides of Control Motivation: Motives for High, Low, and Illusory Control, Suzanne C. Thompson and Michele M. Schlehofer 4. Self-Enhancement and Self-Affirmation: The Consequences of Positive Self-Thoughts for Motivation and Health, Shelley E. Taylor and David K. Sherman 5. Cognitive Dissonance Theory: An Update with a Focus on the Action-Based Model, Eddie Harmon-Jones and Cindy Harmon-Jones 6. Motivated Closed-Mindedness and Its Social Consequences, Arie W. Kruglanski and Woo Young Chun 7. Historical Perspectives and New Directions in Achievement Goal Theory: Understanding the Effects of Mastery and Performance-Approach Goals, Corwin Senko, Amanda M. Durik, and Judith M. Harackiewicz 8. A Basic but Uniquely Human Motivation: Terror Management, Jeff Greenberg, Sheldon Solomon, and Jamie Arndt 9. Prosocial Motivation, C. Daniel Batson, Nadia Ahmad, Adam A. Powell, and E. L. Stocks 10. Implicit Motivation: Past, Present, and Future, Melissa J. Ferguson, Ran Hassin, and John A. Bargh Motivational Systems 11. Motivations for Promotion and Prevention, Daniel C. Molden, Angela Y. Lee, and E. Tory Higgins 12. The Neuroevolution of Motivation, Gary G. Berntson and John T. Cacioppo 13. Contributions of Attachment Theory and Research to Motivation Science, Mario Mikulincer and Phillip R. Shaver 14. Structural Dynamics: The Challenge of Change in Goal Systems, James Y. Shah and Arie W. Kruglanski III. Motivational Processes and Differences Motivational Processes and Goal Pursuits 15. The Goal Construct in Psychology, Andrew J. Elliot and James W. Fryer 16. The Impact of Social Comparisons on Motivation, Penelope Lockwood and Rebecca T. Pinkus 17. Goal Contagion: Inferring Goals from Others' Actions-and What It Leads to, Henk Aarts, Ap Dijksterhuis, and Giel Dik 18. Implicit and Explicit Counteractive Self-Control, Ayelet Fishbach and Yaacov Trope 19. Dealing with Unwanted Feelings: The Role of Affect Regulation in Volitional Action Control, Sander L. Koole and Julius Kuhl 20. Feedback Processes in the Simultaneous Regulation of Action and Affect, Charles S. Carver and Michael F. Scheier 21. Flexible Tenacity in Goal Pursuit, Peter M. Gollwitzer, Elizabeth J. Parks-Stamm, Alexander Jaudas, and Paschal Sheeran 22. The Antecedents and Consequences of Nonconscious Goal Pursuit, Tanya L. Chartrand, Amy N. Dalton, and Clara Michelle Cheng 23. Regulatory Fit, E. Tory Higgins 24. Can Satisfaction Reinforce Wanting?: A New Theory about Long-Term Changes in Strength of Motivation, Kathleen D. Vohs and Roy F. Baumeister Motivational Differences 25. The Role of Goal Investment in Self-Regulation: Benefits and Costs, Eva M. Pomerantz and Serena Shim 26. Self-Theories, Goals, and Meaning, Carol S. Dweck and Heidi Grant 27. Culture and Motivation, Beth Morling and Shinobu Kitayama 28. Of Men, Women, and Motivation: A Role Congruity Account, Amanda B. Diekman and Alice H. Eagly 29. Developmental Perspectives on Achievement Motivation: Personal and Contextual Influences, Lisa Linnenbrink-Garcia and Jennifer A. Fredricks 30. The Interface of Motivation Science and Personology: Self-Concordance, Quality Motivation, and Multilevel Personality Integration, Kennon M. Sheldon IV. Applications of Motivational Research Well-Being and Optimal Functioning 31. Challenge, Threat, and Health, Jim Blascovich 32. Understanding the Determinants of Health Behavior Change: Integrating Theory and Practice, Alexander J. Rothman, Andrew W. Hertel, Austin S. Baldwin, and Roger D. Bartels 33. Social Exclusion, Motivation, and Self-Defeating Behavior: Why Breakups Lead to Drunkenness and Ice Cream, Jean M. Twenge 34. Personal Goals and Life Dreams: Positive Psychology and Motivation in Daily Life, Laura A. King Intergroup and Interpersonal Relations 35. When Self-Protection Hurts: Satisfying Connectedness Motivations in Close Relationships, Sandra L. Murray 36. Prorelationship Motivation: An Interdependence Theory Analysis of Situations with Conflicting Interests, Eli J. Finkel and Caryl E. Rusbult 37. Approaching Social Rewards and Avoiding Social Punishments: Appetitive and Aversive Social Motivation, Shelly L. Gable and Amy Strachman 38. Making Things Better and Worse: Multiple Motives in Stereotyping and Prejudice, Steven J. Stroessner and Abigail A. Scholer 39. System Justification as Conscious and Nonconscious Goal Pursuit, John T. Jost, Janina Pietrzak, Ido Liviatan, Anesu N. Mandisodza, and Jaime L. Napier