The Lion and the Dragon
Britain's Opium Wars with China 1839-1860
- During the middle of the 19th-Century, Britain and China would twice go to war over trade, and in particular the trade in opium. The Chinese people had progressively become addicted to the narcotic, a habit that British merchants were more than happy to feed from their opium-poppy fields in India. When the Qing dynasty rulers of China attempted to supress this trade--due to the serious social and economic problems it caused--the British Government responded with gunboat diplomacy, and conflict soon ensued. The first conflict, known as the First Anglo-Chinese War or Opium War (1839-42), ended in British victory and the Treaty of Nanking. However, this treaty was heavily biased in favour of the British, and it would not be long before there was a renewal of hostilities, taking the form of what became known as the Second Anglo-Chinese War or Arrow War (1857-60). Again, the second conflict would end with an 'unequal treaty' that was heavily biased towards the victor. 'The Lion and the Dragon: Britain's Opium Wars with China, 1839-1860' examines the causes and ensuing military history of these tragic conflicts, as well as their bitter legacies.
- Maps; Glossary; Chronology; Introduction; 1 The Iniquitous Trade; 2 Lin Zexu; 3 The British Expedition; 4 Two Battles for Canton; 5 The Advance to Ningpo; 6 The Chinese Counterattack; 7 The Treaty of Nanking; 8 Renewal of Hostilities; 9 The Treaty of Tientsin; 10 Defeat at Taku; 11 Victory at Taku; 12 The Convention of Peking; Appendix I: British Naval and Ground Forces; Appendix II: British Casualty Statistics; Appendix III: Victoria Cross Citations; Appendix IV: The Treaty of Nanking; Appendix V: The Treaty of the Bogue; Appendix VI: The Treaty of Tientsin; Appendix VII: The Convention of Peking; Endnotes; Bibliography; Index.
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